Sudhir Law Review (SLR) is an e-learning platform that caters to law students and judicial services aspirants. SLR subscribers have access to more than 200 hours of video lectures (along with notes embedded in the videos) on subjects like Constitutional Law, The Code of Civil Procedure, The Code of Criminal Procedure, The Indian Penal Code, Evidence, Contracts, Family Law, Property Law, Torts, Taxation and Jurisprudence.
The lectures are delivered by Abhishek Sudhir, a British-trained Barrister who also happens to be enrolled as an Advocate in India. He has taught at the Jindal Global Law School and has authored books on the Constitution, Family Law, and the Law of Torts.
In order to access Professor Sudhir’s lectures and notes, simply register on www.sudhirlawreview.com using your email address or login through your Gmail or Facebook account.
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The various subjects and topics covered by Abhishek Sudhir are below:
Law of Contract (Part 1)
13 Hours of Lectures on Offer/Proposal; Communication, Acceptance and Revocation of Proposals; Consideration; Capacity to Contract; Free Consent; Coercion; Undue Influence; Fraud; Misrepresentation; Mistake; Unlawful Consideration/Object; Void Agreements; Discharge of Obligations; Performance of Contracts; Doctrine of Frustration; Force Majeure; Assignment of Contracts and Discharge by Operation of Law.
Law of Contract (Part 2)
13 Hours of Lectures on Breach of Contract; Damages for Breach; Specific Performance; Specific Relief Act, 1963; Indemnity; Guarantee; Bailment; Pledge and the Law of Agency.
Constitutional Law (Part 1)
19 Hours of Lectures on Article 12 (Concept of “State”); Article 13 (Meaning of “Law”, Laws inconsistent with Part III, Severability and Doctrine of Eclipse); Article 14 (Doctrine of “Equality”, Test of Reasonable Classification, Test of Arbitrariness and Expanding Horizons of Article 14 Jurisprudence); Articles 15/16 (Reservations in public employment/education/promotions, Test for determining/identifying Backwardness and Creamy Layer); Article 19 (Nature, Scope and Ambit of Right to Free Speech and Expression, Reasonable Restrictions, Right to Practise Profession, Trade, Occupation & Business and Right to Education); Article 21 (Protection of Life and Liberty, Nature of “Procedure Established by Law, The Golden Triangle, Meaning of “Just, Fair and Reasonable”, Right to Life and Dignity; Right to Livelihood, Right to a Pollution-free Environment; Constitutionality of Death Penalty and Right to Privacy – Origins and Evolution); Articles 25/26 (Right to Freedom of Religion, Essential Religious Practices and the Triple Talaq Judgment) and Article 32 (Right to Constitutional Remedies and Public Interest Litigation).
Constitutional Law (Part 2)
5 Hours of Lectures on Federalism; Form of Government; Separation of Powers; Supremacy of the Judiciary; Territory of the Union; Power to Acquire and Cede Territory; Admission of new States; Election of the President; President’s Power to grant a Pardon; Extent of Executive Power of the Union; Delegated Powers; the Union Cabinet; Collective Responsibility; The State Executive (Powers of the Governor and Disqualification of MPs and MLAs); Office of Profit; Parliamentary Privilege; Ordinances; Appeal to the Supreme Court (Substantial question of law, Special Leave Petition (SLP), Review Petition, Curative Petition, Presidential Reference); Articles 32 and 226 Writ Jurisdiction; Distribution of Legislative Powers (Territoriality, Plenary and Ancillary Powers of Legislation, Doctrine of Harmonious Construction, Doctrine of Pith and Substance, Residuary Powers of Legislation and Repugnancy) and Emergency Provisions.
20 Hours of Lectures on Introduction to Hindu Law (Development of Hindu Law, Schools of Hindu Law, Modern Hindu Law, Sources of Hindu Law, “What is Hinduism? Who is a Hindu?” and Codification of Hindu Law); The Hindu Marriage Act (HMA) Sections 1-4 (Concept of Domicile under the HMA, Applicability of Hindu Personal Law, Definitions of Custom and Usage and Overriding Effect of the Act.); Conditions and Ceremonies for a Valid Hindu Marriage; Grounds on which Marriages may be declared Void or Voidable under Sections 11-12; Provisions Punishing Bigamy; Prohibition of Child Marriage Act; Restitution of Conjugal Rights; Divorce and Judicial Separation under the HMA (Cruelty as a Ground for Divorce, Nature, Scope and Ambit of “Desertion”, Alternate Relief in Divorce Proceedings, Divorce by Mutual Consent and Waiver of “Cooling-off” Period); Maintenance (Introduction to the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act [HAMA], Maintenance Permanent/Pendent Lite u/s 24-25 HMA, Maintenance of Wife etc. u/s 18 HAMA, Order for Maintenance u/s 125 CrPC, Calculating Maintenance and Maintenance in Live-in Relationships/Relationships in the nature of Marriage under the Domestic Violence Act); Custody and Guardianship under the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act and Guardians and Wards Act; Law on Adoption; Introduction to Mahomedan Law (Schools of Sunni and Shia Law, Who is a Mahomedan?, Determining Muslim Sub-sect; Nature, Scope and Ambit of the “Shariat”; Shariat Act, 1937 and Shariat Courts’ legal standing); Essentials and Validity of Muslim Marriages; Divorce and Right to Maintenance under Muslim Law (Right and Modalities of Divorce under Muslim Law [Origins & Evolution], Talak – Nature, Types, Pronouncement and Revocability, Constitutionality of Triple Talak, Need for Reasonable Cause, Reconciliation of Parties, Khula, Mubaraat, Lian, the Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act, 1939, Inequitable Treatment of Wife in Polygamous Marriage as “Cruelty”, The Shah Bano Case, Right to Maintenance of Divorced Muslim Women post-Iddat period under the CrPC and Mahomedan Law, Constitutionality of the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986; Danial Latifi v. Union of India, and Applicability of/Maintenance under the Domestic Violence Act to Muslim Women); The Indian Christian Marriage Act, 1872; Grounds for Dissolution under The Divorce Act, 1869; Mutual Consent and Decree of Nullity under The Divorce Act, 1869, and The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 (Registration and Solemnization of Marriages under the SMA; Certificate of Marriage; Registration of Marriages Celebrated in other forms; Void & Voidable Marriages, Conjugal Rights & Judicial Separation; Divorce, Maintenance/Alimony & Custody and Consequences of Marriage under the SMA.)
Family Law (Part 2)
24 Hours of Lectures on The Hindu Joint Family, Coparceners and Coparcenary Property; Powers, Privileges and Obligations of a Karta; Doctrine of Pious Obligation; Partition (Partition under Dayabhaga/Mitakshara School, Allotment of Shares on Partition, Doctrine of Survivorship and Suit for Partition – Preliminary v. Final Decree.); Devolution of Interest in Coparcenary Property: Features of a Mitakshara Coparcenary; Daughters as Coparceners under Section 6 of the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 (as amended by Act 39 of 2005); Devolution of Coparcenary Interest under the Old Section 6 and New Section 6 of the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 (as amended by Act 39 of 2005); Hindu Intestate and Testamentary Succession (Applicability/Overview of The Hindu Succession Act, 1956, General rules and order of succession in the case of males under Sections 8-13, General rules and order of succession in the case of females under Sections 14-16, General Provisions relating to Succession [Sections 18, 20-22,25-29]; Women as Owners of Property and Testamentary Succession under Section 30 of the Hindu Succession Act, 1956); Wills and the Indian Succession Act, 1925 (Definition and Nature of a Will/Codicil, Capacity to Make a Will, Execution of Unprivileged Wills, Will obtained by Fraud, Coercion or Importunity, Proving a Will, Revocation of an Unprivileged Will, Effect of obliteration, interlineation or alteration in Unprivileged Will, Construction of Wills, Void Wills or Bequests, Vesting of Legacies, Onerous, Contingent and Conditional Bequests, Specific v. Demonstrative Legacy, Ademption, Protection of Property of the Deceased – Appointment of Curator; Powers of Curator, Appointment of Executor; Grant of Letters of Administration and Probate [Practice and Procedure], Powers of an Executor/Administrator); When Probate is Compulsory; Succession Certificate (Object, Rationale & Use); Mahomedan Wills, Gifts, Wakf and Pre-emption (Essentials of a Mahomedan Will, Limits to Testamentary Disposition imposed on a Mahomedan, Nature, Scope and Ambit of a Gift or Hiba, Three Essentials of a Valid Hiba, Hibanama, Acceptance of Gift made to Minor, Delivery of Possession of Immovable Property Gifted, Revocation of Gift Inter-Vivos under Muslim Law, Doctrine of Marz-ul-Maut [death-illness], Revocation of Gift made in Marz-ul-Maut, The Concept of “Wakf”, The Wakf Act, 1995, Formalities for Creation and Registration of Wakfs, Valid Wakf, Appointment/Removal of the “Mutawalli” and his/her Powers/Duties, Authorities under the Wakf Act, 1995 [Wakf Tribunals], Shufaa [Right of Pre-emption], Origins of the Right of Pre-emption and its Salient Features, Individuals who may Claim
Pre-emption, Non-Mahomedans and Customary Right of Pre-emption and Formalities for asserting Right of Pre-emption); Muslim Intestate Succession (Muslim Law of Inheritance, Succession of Shares when Property Commonly Owned, Scheme of Hanafi Intestate Succession with Detailed Illustrations, Allotment of Shares to Sharers [Quranic Heirs], Residuaries [Male Agnatic Heirs & Agnatic Co-sharers] and Distant Kindred (considered briefly) and Doctrines of Aul and Radd); Consequences of Muslims Marrying under the Special Marriage Act, 1954 (Section 21) and Christian Intestate Succession (Provisions relating to Christian Intestate Succession in the Indian Succession Act, 1925).
Code of Civil Procedure [CPC]
8 Hours of Lectures on Object, Scope, Scheme and Retrospective Operation of the Code; Decrees and Judgments; Sub judice, Res judicata, Pecuniary Jurisdiction and Territorial Jurisdiction; Institutions of Suit, Pleadings, Summons, Set-off and Counterclaim; Ex-parte hearing, Framing of issues, Interrogatories, Discovery and Inspection; Affidavits, Admissions, Adjournments, Interim Orders, Injunctions and Security for Costs; Witnesses, Trial procedure, Recording of Evidence, Commissioners and Costs; and Appeals, Reference, Review, Revision and Execution.
Code of Criminal Procedure [CrPC] (Part 1)
9 Hours of Lectures on Preliminary provisions, Savings clause, Classes of Criminal Courts, Territorial Divisions, Courts of Sessions, Classes of Magistrates, Functionaries under the Code like Police, Prosecutor, Defence Counsel and Prison Authorities;
Cognizable/Non-Cognizable, Bailable/Non-Bailable, Summons/Warrant cases, First Schedule of the CrPC, Sentencing Powers of Criminal Courts; Arrest of Persons, Arrest with and without warrant, Rights of Arrested Persons, Service of Summons, Execution of Warrant, Proclamation and Attachment, Processes to Compel Production of Things, Search with and without warrant, Panchnama and Panchas, Seizure of Property;
First Information Report (FIR), Investigation of Cognizable and Non-Cognizable Offences, Procedure for Investigation, Examination of Witnesses by Police, Recording of Confessions and Statements, Police and Judicial Custody, Case Diary, Chargesheet and Closure Report; Local Jurisdiction of Criminal Courts, Exceptions to Ordinary Place of Inquiry and Trial Rule, Taking Cognizance of Offences, Limitations on Power to take Cognizance, Sanction for Prosecution; Complaint Cases, Commencement of Judicial Proceedings, Issue of Process, Committal and Consolidation of Cases.
Code of Criminal Procedure [CrPC] Part 2
13 Hours of Lectures on Bail Provisions, Bail in Bailable and Non-Bailable cases, Anticipatory Bail, Exercising the Discretion to grant Bail and Anticipatory Bail, Power of High Court and Court of Sessions to grant Bail, Suspension of Sentence, Bail Bond and Surety Provisions; Framing of Charge, Discharge, Charge in a Summons case, Framing of Charge by Sessions Court, Contents of Charge, Effect of Errors in Charge, Alteration of Charge, Recall of Witnesses when Charge is altered, “Distinct Offence” rule, Offences committed in the Same Transaction, Charging persons Jointly, Withdrawal of Charges; Right to Fair Trial, Elements of a Fair Trial, Adversarial v. Inquisitorial system, Trial Provisions, Power of Court to Summon/Examine Witnesses, Commission for Examination of Witnesses, Recording Evidence in absence of Accused, Section 313 Statements, Accused to be Competent Witness, Power to add accused under Section 319; Preliminary Pleas to Bar Full Trial, Limitation, Autrefois Acquit and Autrefois Convict, Issue Estoppel, Tender of Pardon to Accomplice, Compoundable Offences, Withdrawal from Prosecution, Trial before a Court of Sessions, Conviction on Guilty Plea, Plea Bargaining, Prosecution Evidence, Record of Evidence, Acquittal after hearing the Parties, Defence Evidence, Closing Arguments; Judgment of Acquittal or Conviction, Pronouncing the Judgment, Language and Contents of a Judgment, Confirmation of Death Sentence, Consecutive v. Concurrent Sentences of Imprisonment, Compensation and Post-Conviction Orders, Suspension/Commutation/Remission of Sentence; Scheme of Appeal Provisions, Appeal against Inadequacy of Sentence, Appeal against order of Acquittal, Presentation of Petition of Appeal, Grounds of Appeal, Summary Dismissal, Powers in Disposing of Appeal, Power of Appellate Court to take Evidence, Finality of Appeals, Abatement of Appeals, Appellate Powers of Supreme Court, Reference, Revision, Exercising Powers of Revision, Revisional Jurisdiction and Interlocutory Orders, Inherent Power of the High Court, Transfer of Cases; Preventive Action, Security Proceedings, Dispersal of Unlawful Assembly, Section 144 Prohibitory and Mandatory Orders.
8 Hours of Lectures on Preliminary Provisions; General Exceptions; Common Intent, Abetment and Conspiracy; Culpable Homicide, Murder, Culpable Homicide not amounting to Murder, Attempt to Murder, Capital Punishment in “Rarest of the Rare” cases and Causing Death by Negligence; Dowry Death and Cruelty/Harassment of a Woman in relation to a demand for Dowry;
Causing Hurt, Wrongful Restraint, Wrongful Confinement, Kidnapping and Abduction.
Indian Penal Code [IPC] (Part 2)
7 Hours of Lectures on Assault, Criminal Force and Outraging/Insulting the Modesty of a Woman; Offences introduced after the Delhi Gang Rape case such as Sexual Harassment, Voyeurism and Stalking;
Ingredients of the Offence of Rape, Gang Rape, Punishment for Rape, Rape resulting in PVS/Death and other Aggravated forms of Rape; Theft, Extortion, Robbery, Dacoity, Dacoity with Murder, Mischief and Trespass;
Criminal Breach of Trust, Cheating, Forgery and Making a False Document;
Offences against the State, Sedition, Offences relating to Religion, Bigamy, Adultery, Giving/Fabricating False Evidence, Public Nuisance, Obscenity and Defamation.
The Indian Evidence Act (Part 1)
6 Hours of Lectures on Interpretation Clause, Fact, Facts in Issue, Relevancy of Facts; Meaning of “Evidence”; Presumptions, Conclusive Proof, Res Gestae, Motive, Alibi, Test Identification Parade; Admissions, Extra-judicial Confessions, Confessions before the Police, Recording of Confessions; Hearsay, Circumstantial Evidence, Last Seen Together; Dying Declarations, Expert Evidence and Character Evidence.
The Indian Evidence Act (Part 2)
6 Hours of Lectures on Facts which need not be proved, Oral Evidence, Hearsay, Direct and Circumstantial Evidence;
Documentary Evidence, Electronic Records, Proof of Handwriting/Signature, Primary and Secondary Evidence; Public/Private Documents, Exclusion of Oral by Documentary Evidence i.e. Best Evidence Rule, Presumptions (Abetment of Suicide of Married Woman, Dowry Death and Rape); Competence of Witnesses, Privileged Communications and Testimony of Accomplice; Order and Production of Witnesses, Judge’s Role during Examination of Witnesses, Modes of Examining Witnesses (Examination-in-Chief, Cross-Examination and Re-Examination), Lawful Questions during Examination;
Leading Questions, Evidence as to Matters in Writing, Hostile Witness, Judge’s Power to Question Witness, Judge’s Power to Order Production of Document or Thing, Improper Admission/Rejection of Evidence by the Judge.
10 Hours of Lectures on Meaning, Nature and Scope of “Jurisprudence”, Expository v. Censorial Jurisprudence, General v. Particular Jurisprudence, Why study Jurisprudence?, How to approach the study of Jurisprudence; Natural Law Theory, Cicero, St. Thomas Aquinas’s Traditional Approach to Natural Law, Are Unjust Laws to be Disobeyed?, Criticisms of Natural Law by the Positivists, John Finnis’ defence of Natural Law; An Introduction to Positivist Thought, Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan, Jeremy Bentham on Sovereignty, John Austin’s Command Theory, H.L.A. Hart’s Criticisms of the Command Theory, What unites all Positivists?; Hans Kelsen’s Pure Theory of Law, Norms as the Objects of the Science of Law, The Grundnorm, Criticism of Kelsen’s Theory- deriving an “ought” from an “is”, Efficacy and the Basic Norm; H.L.A. Hart’s refined “Legal Positivism”, The Concept of Law, Habit of Obedience, Internal Aspect of Rules, Feeling obliged v. Having an Obligation, External and Internal Point of View, Primary Rules of Obligation, Secondary Rules- The Rules of Recognition, Adjudication and Change, Core of Certainty and Penumbra of Doubt, Open Texture of Rules; Law and Morality- Hart v. Lon Fuller, Fuller’s eight desiderata that a legal system must satisfy, The Dilemma of Nazi Germany and the Grudge Informer Case, Fuller’s Internal Morality of Law, Hart on the “Minimum Content” of Natural Law; Law and Morality- Hart v. Ronald Dworkin, Dworkin’s criticisms of Three Theses Positivists espouse, Dworkin’s distinction between “Rules” and “Principles”, Inadequacies of Hart’s “Model of Rules”, Legality v. Morality, Hercules and Hard Cases; Ronald Dworkin’s Interpretive Theory of Law, Law’s Empire, Propositions and Grounds of Law, Empirical v. Theoretical Disagreements, Rights and Principles, Originalism and Legislative Intent, Dworkin’s “Moral Reading”, Law as Integrity, The Majoritarian (Premise) and Constitutional conceptions of Democracy; American Legal Realism, The Nightmare and the Noble Dream of Anglo-American Jurisprudential scholars.
7 Hours of Lectures on Scheme of the Income Tax Act, IT Rules, Central Board of Direct Taxes, Finance Acts;
Key concepts like Financial Year, Assessment Year, Previous Year, Person, Association of Persons, Body of Individuals, Artificial Juridical Persons;
Definition, Scope and Ambit of “Income”, Diversion v. Application of Income, Residential Status and Incidence of Tax, Section 10 Allowances, Agricultural Income; Heads of Income like Salaries (Meaning, Nature of Employment), Income from House Property (Deemed Owner; Nature of Use, Deductions), Profits and Gains from Business and Profession, Capital Expenditure v. Revenue Expenditure, Capital Gains Computation, Income from other Sources, Income earning Expenditure, Income of other Persons, Set-off and Carry Forward of Losses;
Calculating an Individual’s Net Tax Liability, Assessment of Companies, Filing IT Returns, Modes of Assessment- Self, Summary, Scrutiny, Best Judgment and Income-escaping;
Search & Seizure, Tax Deducted at Source (TDS), Advance Tax, Settlement of Cases, Appeals, Revision, Penalties and Prosecution; Advance Rulings, Double Taxation, Transfer Pricing, Tax Planning, Tax Evasion, Tax Avoidance and the Vodafone Case.
19 Hours of Lectures on General Tortious Principles; Difference between Tort and Contract; Difference between Tort and Crime; Actionable Tort; Injuria Sine Damnum v. Damnum Sine Injuria; Ubi Jus Ibi Remedium; Tort of Negligence (Nature, Scope and Ambit of Negligence, Essential Conditions of Liability for Negligence – Duty of Care, Breach of Duty and Causation, Conditions for Existence of Duty of Care, Tests of Foreseeability and Proximity, Degree/Standard of Care [The “Reasonable Man” Test], Novus Actus Interveniens, Burden of Proving Negligence and Res Ipsa Loquitur); Negligence by Occupier; Medical Negligence; Defences to Negligence (Plea of “Contributory Negligence” and Volenti Non Fit Injuria); Strict and Absolute Liability; Vicarious Liability; Damages under Common Law & Fatal Accidents Act (Rule of Remoteness [Foreseeability of Damage], Causation and Res Ipsa Loquitur, Pecuniary v. Non-Pecuniary Damages, General v. Special Damages, Exemplary v. Punitive Damages, Assessment of Compensation in Personal Injury Cases; Measure of Damages under the Fatal Accidents Act, 1855); Tort of Trespass; Torts of Assault and Battery; Mere Insult as Actionable Tort; Constitutional Torts and Sovereign Immunity; Malicious Prosecution; Tortious Act of “False Imprisonment”; Trespass to Land and Property; Trespasser Ab Initio, Trespass by Remaining & Continuing Trespass; Trespass to Goods and Conversion; Remedies for Tort of Trespass; Lawful Justification for committing the Tort of Trespass; Tort of Nuisance and the Tort of Defamation.
Property Law (Part 1)
9 Hours of Lectures on Types of Property (Definition of/Distinction between Movable and Immovable property, Meaning of “Attached to Earth” u/s 3, TP Act, Profit a Pendre;
Transfer of Property: Meaning of “Transfer” u/s 5, TP Act, Transfers Inter-vivos, Types of Property that may be transferred u/s 6, TP Act, Spec Successionis, Customary law and Transfer of Property Act [TP], 1882); Effects of Transfer (Operation of Transfer u/s 8, TP Act, Transfer of Property that is a debt, Actionable Claims, Distinction between Right to Sue and Actionable Claim); Restraints on Alienation and Conditional Transfers (Condition restraining alienation u/s 10, TP Act, Absolute and Partial Restraints, Conditions Superadded u/s 12 and 31, TP Act); Restraints on Enjoyment (Section 11 para 1 Restraints on Enjoyment, Section 11 para 2 Positive/Affirmative Covenants under the TP Act, Negative/Restrictive Covenants u/s 40, Rule in Tulk v. Moxhay and Covenants that “Run with the Land”); Rule against Perpetuities, Vested and Contingent Interests (Transfer for Benefit of Unborn Person u/s 13, TP Act, Rule against Perpetuities u/s 14, TP Act, Difference between Vested and Contingent Interest u/s 19 and 21, TP Act, Failure of Prior Interest u/s 16, TP Act, Transfer to a Class of Persons u/s 15 and 21, TP Act, and Conditional Transfers u/s 27, TP Act);
Equitable Rules when Rights Conflict (Priority of Rights u/s 48, TP Act, Doctrine of Holding Out [Benami Transactions] u/s 41, TP Act, and Improvements by Bona Fide holders u/s 51, TP Act); Lis Pendens and Fraudulent Transfer (Lis Pendens u/s 52, TP Act, Impleading Lis Pendens Transferee, Lis Pendens and Specific Performance, and Fraudulent Transfer u/s 53, TP Act).
Property Law (Part 2)
11 Hours of Lectures on Undivided Ownership (Joint-ownership, Joint Tenants and Tenancy-in-Common distinguished); Doctrine of Part Performance; Sale of Immoveable Property (Requirements of “Sale” u/s 54, Transfer of Ownership by Registration, Overview of the Registration Act, 1908, Agreement of Sale distinguished from “Sale”, Payment of Stamp Duty/Registration Fees and Process for Registration of Sale Deed); Rights and Liabilities of Buyer and Seller; Mortgages of Immoveable Property (Nature of a Mortgage, Types of Mortgage – Simple, Usufructuary, Mortgage by Conditional Sale, English, Equitable [by deposit of title deeds] and Anomalous Mortgages); Rights and Liabilities of Mortgagor and Mortgagee;
Leases (Lease, Lessor, Lessee, Premium and Rent defined, Transfer of the Right to Enjoyment of Property, Types of Tenancies created by a Lease, Tenancy at Will and Perpetual distinguished, Lease Sub-lease, Registration of Lease Agreements, Rental Agreements, Overview of Rent Control Legislation, Duration of certain leases in absence of written contract or local usage, Notice Requirements for Terminating Lease Agreement, Date of Commencement of Lease, Nature of a Periodical Tenancy, Modes of Determination of Lease – efflux of time, surrender, forfeiture and expiration of notice period to terminate the lease/quit the leased property, Tenancy by Holding Over and Rights/Liabilities of Lessor/Lessee u/s 108); Easements and License; Gifts, Exchange and Adverse Possession (Sections 122/23, T.P. Act 1882 – “Gift” Defined and How Effected, Substantial Requirements of Transfer of Gift of Moveable and Immoveable Property, Whether and When a Gift may be Revoked, Onerous Gifts, Universal Donee, Nature of an “Exchange”, Rights and Liabilities under an Exchange, Nature of Adverse Possession, Articles 64 and 65 of the Limitation Act.
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