By Sameer Bhatt and Shrikanth Bhaskar, GNLU
Editor’s Note: This paper discusses the life of Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States of America and the drafter of the Declaration of Independence.
KNOWING THE SAGE OF MONTICELLO
In the thick of party conflict in 1800, Thomas Jefferson wrote in a private letter:
“I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man.”1
The above line about Thomas Jefferson can best describe him in a single line. The third president of the United States of America was born on April 13, 1743 to a plantation owner and a Randolph. Most of Thomas Jefferson’s ideology was influenced during his stay in France when he went there as minister to France in 1785. As the “silent member” of the Congress, Jefferson, at 33, drafted the Declaration of Independence. In years following he labored to make its words a reality in Virginia. Most notably, he wrote a bill establishing religious freedom, enacted in 1786.
Jefferson’s record of public service is extraordinary. Forty years of service that included: authoring the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom, Governor of Virginia, Minister Plenipotentiary to France, first Secretary of State, second Vice President and third President of the United States. In his retirement he founded the University of Virginia. He is best known for the Declaration of Independence –a document so enduring that it continues to be invoked around the world by people striving for liberty, equality and the right of self-government.3
After serving the American people for nearly four decades, Jefferson stepped down from public office in 1809 at the age of 65. He described his feelings as follows:
“Never did a prisoner, released from his chains, feel such relief as I shall on shaking off the shackles of power.”
After stepping down from office, Jefferson went back to Virginia and pursued his own interest in education and donating his vast collection to the library of congress. In order to improve higher education, Jefferson established the University of Virginia in 1805. After seeing his university grow for nearly twenty years, Jefferson’s health took a turn for the worst in 1826 where he became bedridden from June and passed away on July 4th 1826, ironically the same day the declaration of independence was signed fifty years ago.
JEFFERSON AND FREEDOM
Freedom is a central concept in Western history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies. It’s the condition of being free; the power to act or speak or think without externally imposed restraints. It is often interpreted negatively as the freedom from unreasonable external constraints on action while it also refers to the positive exercise of rights. Freedom for Kant can be expressed to its fullest in a state of maximal freedom, where each individual respects the freedoms of every other individual to the extent that each and every person can possess that same freedom without infringing upon the freedom of others.
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”
Few words have caused more change in the world than these4. Thomas Jefferson wrote them in the Declaration of Independence in 1776. No name is more often or more intimately associated with freedom and liberty in America than that of Thomas Jefferson. His words are still quoted with confidence and received with respect in the consideration of almost all political questions across political dimensions. Though regarded as the great advocate of liberty and freedom, Jefferson bequeathed to posterity no systematic treatise on his principles of politics. He was not a great orator, and there is no collection of addresses in which his ideas are embodied. He was, however, a great correspondent; and we have a large collection of his letters, written to such persons as Madison, John Adams, Taylor, Johnston and others. From this extensive correspondence in which topics of political theory, that of freedom and liberty frequently appear, together with some of this official papers, it is possible to reconstruct his theory of liberty and freedom, if not in minute detail, at least in general outline.
On a close inquiry into Jefferson’s theory of freedom and inalienable rights, he can be found to be protesting against the very idea that people give up any of their natural rights on entering into a society. He argued that the natural rights are not surrendered but, on the contrary, are rendered more secure and a better guarantee of these rights is obtained. He holds that the state should not take away any of our rights but should declare and enforce them. As no man has a natural right to interfere with the right of others, it is the duty of law to restrain every one from such interference.5
LOCKE IN JEFFERSON’S IDEA OF FREEDOM
The ideas of John Locke and other philosophers are welded into the documents and ideals on which the country was founded. Specifically, John Locke’s philosophy of government, freedom, and natural rights challenged the power of England’s monarchy in Europe over the colonies in America. The ideas written in Locke’s “Second Treatise on Government” had an especially large impact on one of the most important documents in American history, The Declaration of Independence.
While the Declaration was not written by individuals who read only Locke, it nonetheless reflects important aspects of his theory, including an ambiguous, although plausible connection between a government which derives its powers from popular consent and one which is directly controlled by its people. The Founders, particularly Thomas Jefferson, looked to John Locke’s Two Treatise of Government more than any other work in justifying the American Revolution. The work rejected the absolutist theory of government and its corollary, the divine right of Kings, and espoused a conditional theory of premised on the “social contract”.
Written in two parts, the “First Treatise on Government” was a criticism of “The Divine Right of Kings” and a refutation of Monarchy. The next and more influential “Second Treatise of Government” is his solution to monarchy. This solution consists of dissolving the corrupt system and creating his ideal government to take its place. The natural liberty of man is to be free from any superior power on earth, and not to be under the will or legislative authority of man, but to have only the law of nature for his rule.6
The liberty of man in society is to be under no other legislative power but that established by consent in the commonwealth; nor under the dominion of any will or restraint of any law, but what that legislative power shall enact according to the trust put in it. Although the document notes that it was the Creator who endowed men with the unalienable rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, the Declaration of Independence also acknowledges that these rights belonged to Americans prior to the formation of government. In the paragraph preceding the famous rights proclamation, colonists declared their decision to “dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another” and “assume… the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature’s God entitle them.” With this statement, colonists implied their right to return to a kind of state of nature, where men were free of government and political bonds. The immutable rights listed belonged to every colonists, before governments were formed and after they were dissolved. In this sense, it suggests an ongoing, albeit indirect, Lockean influence.7
In addition to the verbal parallels between Locke’s Treatise and the Declaration of Independence, we have further evidence of the influence of Locke on Jefferson. First, Jefferson explicitly cites Locke’s influence on the Declaration, “All its authority rests then on the harmonizing sentiments of the day, whether expressed in conversation, in letter, printed essays or in the elementary books of public right, as Aristotle, Cicero, Locke, Sidney etc.”8 What makes this claim especially significant is that it comes in response to Richard Henry Lee’s claim that in the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson plagiarized Locke. That Lee would make such a charge is evidence of the Lockean influence and that Jefferson would respond to the charge so phlegmatically is further evidence. Second, Jefferson praises the Second Treatise as “perfect so far as it goes.”
Jefferson’s views of liberty are clearly shaped by Locke, so clearly that William Lee Millers remarks that “Jefferson’s statute contains enough echoes of John Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration for a twentieth-century student in Mr. Jefferson’s university to wonder whether in composing it Mr. Jefferson had violated the university’s honor code.”9
JEFFERSON AND RELIGIOUS FREEDOM
While it true that when the Constitution was being drafted Jefferson was in France, it is equally true that his views on religious freedom were none the less felt by the persons who were responsible for the First Amendment.10 Jefferson and Madison were in close touch by correspondence. Jefferson wrote to Madison in 1787 that what he did not like about the proposed Constitution was “the omission of a bill of rights, providing clearly, and without the aid of sophism, for freedom of religion…”11 …”12 In his first inaugural address Jefferson said that one of the essential principles of our government is “freedom of religion”.13 By “freedom of religion” Jefferson meant more than the absence of a religion officially established; for we have seen that though Virginia has disestablished the Protestant Episcopal Church, Jefferson was not satisfied –he did not rest until his “Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom” became a law. “But it does me no injury,” he wrote in his Notes on Virginia, “for my neighbout to say there are twenty gods, or no God. It neither picks my pocket nor breaks my leg.”14 “The care of ever man’s soul belongs to himself,” he wrote in his Notes on Religion.15
Jefferson, in both his private and public life has always been a proponent of the idea that every person has a right to choose his or her religion. This is depicted by phrases such as “Nature’s God”, which Jefferson used in the Declaration of Independence16 .To Jefferson, “Nature’s God,” is someone who is undeniably visible in the workings of the universe, gives man the freedom to choose his religious beliefs.17This shows that even in the most famous and public work of Thomas Jefferson he is firm on his idea that every person should be free to choose his or her own religious path.
It has been recorded that Jefferson “attended church with as much regularity as most of the members of the congregation – sometimes going alone on horse- back, when his family remained at home”, and that he also “contributed freely to the erection of Christian churches, gave money to Bible societies and other religious objects, and was a liberal and regular contributor to the support of the clergy. Letters of his are extant which show him urging, with respectful delicacy, the acceptance of extra and unsolicited contributions, on the pastor of his parish, on occasions of extra expense to the latter, such as the building of a house.18 From the above we can see that he was personally a very devote Christian and believed in god. We can further see this when he has on numerous occasions considered the religion of Christianity as having “the most sublime and benevolent code of morals which has ever been offered to man.”19 Another place where we can see the religious side of Thomas Jefferson is when he was president. Throughout his administration, which lasted for eight years Jefferson permitted church services in executive branch buildings, which were acceptable to Jefferson because they were nondiscriminatory and voluntary, and because he believed that religion was an important support for republican government20
Although Jefferson believed in a Creator, his concept of it resembled that of the god of deism (the term “Nature’s God” used by deists of the time). With his scientific bent, Jefferson sought to organize his thoughts on religion. He rejected the superstitions and mysticism of Christianity and even went so far as to edit the gospels, removing the miracles and mysticism of Jesus leaving only what he deemed the correct moral philosophy of Jesus.21 For the majority of his life, although he has believed in religious freedom to all, he always felt that European culture and religion was much more efficient compared to other cultures and religions. We see this view of Jefferson when he held that the Natives should give up their own cultures, religions, and lifestyles to assimilate to western European culture and a European-style agriculture, which was more efficient22
Although he had a belief that European culture and religion was more advanced and efficient as compared to other cultures and religions, he never let these thoughts affect his views when it came to religious freedom. Although he had a firm belief in Christianity and god, he had a stronger belief that every man and woman has a right to choose whichever religion he or she feels is best for him or her. Jefferson writes “But it does me no injury for my neighbour to say there are twenty gods, or no god. It neither picks my pocket nor breaks my leg.”23 From the above lines he states we see that although Thomas Jefferson privately is a devote Christian, he never feels the need to impose his views on others and believes that religion is something that must be chosen individually.
Although Jefferson was raised in the Church of England during a time period when it was the only established church in Virginia and only denomination funded by Virginia tax money, during his college period, He was introduced to the writings of the British Empiricists, including Locke, Francis Bacon, and Isaac Newton.24 This was one of the reasons due to which Thomas Jefferson started propounding the idea of religious freedom. Before looking into the various steps Thomas Jefferson took in order to inculcate the spirit of freedom of religion in the American people, it is first important to see the various ideologies Thomas Jefferson had regarding the idea of religious freedom. The main ideas of Thomas Jefferson can summaried as follows:
Jefferson advanced the idea of Separation of Church and State, believing that the government should not have an official religion while at the same time it should not prohibit any particular religious expression. He first expressed these thoughts in an 1802 letter to the Danbury Baptists in Connecticut25 Jefferson was firmly anticlerical saying that in “every country and every age, the priest has been hostile to liberty. He is always in alliance with the despot…they have perverted the purest religion ever preached to man into mystery and jargon, unintelligible to all mankind, and therefore the safer for their purposes.”26
Jefferson, also deeply influenced by French thought, advocated a more temperate form of separation.27 An Anglican churchgoer, he denounced Christian doctrine, but adhered to Jesus’ moral code as the “most perfect and sublime that has ever been taught by man”.28 As revealed by his epitaph, Jefferson regarded the Declaration of Independence, the founding of University of Virginia, and the Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom as his greatest achievements. 29 The religious freedom bill has been typically described as the culmination of
Jefferson’s efforts to erect “an unbreachable wall of separation between Church and State and make religious opinions forever private and sacrosanct from intrusion.”30 Jefferson’s republican campaign for political freedom and rational inquiry melded tightly with his opposition to priestcraft an any exercise of power by the church on the state. As Peter Onuf writes: Jefferson defined the old regime as an unholy alliance of “kings, nobles, and priests” that divided the people in order to rule them.31 Jefferson’s Bill for Religious Freedom, he told Adams in 1813, “put down the aristocracy of the clergy, and restored to the citizen the freedom of the mind,” thus making possible the progressive development of that “entire inion of opinion” that alone could guarantee the survival of republican government.32
While President, Jefferson broke with tradition by refusing to issue religious proclamations because he considered the national government “interdicted by the Constitution from intermeddling with religious institutions, their doctrine, discipline or exercises.”33 As a state legislator, however, he participated in a comprehensive revision of Virginia’s laws, which included: A Bill for Punishing Disturbers of Religious Worship and Sabbath Breakers; A Bill for Appointing Days of Public Fasting and Thanksgiving; and A Bill Annulling Marriages Prohibited by the Levitical Law and Appointing the Mode of Solemnizing Lawful Marriage.34Thomas Jefferson believed in freedom of religion, too. He believed there should be a “high wall between church and state.” He did not believe people should pay taxes to support any church. 35 which in simple words means religion can no longer be an auxiliary of government control.36
Being in the public office, Thomas Jefferson took many steps in order to increase freedom of religion in the United States of America.37 The first and foremost step Thomas Jefferson took regarding the goal of religious freedom after authoring the Declaration of independence and making it include the phrase natural god, was to pass Virginia’s An Act of Establishing Religious freedom. This bill was introduced in the late eighteenth century. Thomas Jefferson is considered the author of this Virginia Statute that primarily deals with religious freedom. But as Jefferson was deputed as minister to France during the initial introduction of the bill before the Virginia Legislation, the task of getting the bill through the legislation was delegated to James Madison.
In 1777, Jefferson drafted Virginia’s An Act of Establishing Religious Freedom. Submitted in 1779, the Act was finally ratified in 1786 by the Virginia legislature. The Act forbade that men be forcibly compelled to attend or donate money to religious establishments, and that men “shall be free to profess, and by argument to maintain, their opinions in matters of religion.”38 This bill that Jefferson introduced in Virginia declared that the government could not tell people what to believe when it came to religion beliefs39 Jefferson while writing the “Bill for establishing Religious Freedom.” stated that “no man shall be compelled (forced) to frequent (go to) or support any religious worship, place or ministry whatsoever.”40
The above mentioned bill was the brain child of Thomas Jefferson and is considered to be one of the most important pieces of legislation in history regarding freedom of religion. This bill is considered as the forerunner of the first amendment protections for religious freedom. 41 This legislation was considered as one of the most defining moment in Thomas Jefferson’s illustrious career in public office. It again emphasized that Thomas Jefferson believed in freedom of religion, too. He believed there should be a “high wall between church and state.” He did not believe people should pay taxes to support any church. 42
Unlike the United States, where this legislation was met with mixed perception, it was highly acclaimed in the European continent as it declared the opinions of men to be beyond the jurisdiction of the civil magistrate and Thomas Jefferson asserted that the mind is not subject to coercion, that civil rights have no dependence on religious opinions, and that the opinions of men are not the concern of civil government. This became one of the American charters of freedom. This elevated declaration of the freedom of the mind was hailed in Europe as “an example of legislative wisdom and liberality never before known”43 Although the legislation won several hearts and heads across every spectrum, it was heavily critisised back in the United States of America.it was criticized so heavily that Jefferson, regarding the passing of the statute commented that it was “the severest contest in which I have ever been engaged44
But never the less, on more than one occasion, Thomas Jefferson has stated that he believed that the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom was one of his greatest achievements.45. This statement can be held to be true because this one of his many achievements he wanted engaved on his tombstone. Thomas Jefferson’s main argument for acceptance of religious freedom in American society was that the holy author of our religion, who being lord both of body and mind, yet chose not to propagate it by coercions on either, as was in his Almighty power to do, (but to extend it by its influence on reason alone;) 46. Many of Thomas Jefferson’s ideas can be summed up from the above statement. We see that Thomas Jefferson’s main idea of separating the propaganda of religion by the state is due to the fact that the Lord almighty, who was the founder of religion, did not propaganda religion and left it to the thinking of people whether or not to accept the religion. Also we see more of such behavior if we go through an extract of his draft for his second inaugural speech whereby he states the following ‘In matters of religion, I have considered that its free exercise is placed by the constitution independent of the powers of the general government.’
Although Thomas Jefferson fundamentally belived in the freedom of religion, there were also political reasons as to why he emphasized on having a greater dergree of religious freedom in the United States of America. His main political reason for increasing separating the government from religion was that Various religious groups had immigrated to the Americas from Europe because the state got too involved with their religion and invariably their individual private life.. So Jefferson and Madison thought the government should remain secular. Madison additionally thought that governmental power would corrupt religion.47
But however hard he tried to bring in change in the field of religious freedom in the United States of America, he always faced a lot of pressure from many domestic policy makers who believed that as the founding fathers of the country were Christians, that the whole country should embrace Christianity. Due to this, Thomas Jefferson as president, he sanctioned financial support for a priest and church for the Kaskaskia Indians, who were at the time already Christianized and baptized. Edwin Gaustad wrote that this was a pragmatic political move aimed at stabilizing relations with the Indian tribes.48
Jefferson’s life might have come to an end but the legacy he left behind will go on forever. He can be considered as the architect of modern perception society has regarding religious freedom. His philosophy regarding this subject has lasted through the test of time as his statement that there should be a wall between the state and religion has been referred to a number of times by the Supreme Court of the United States of America in its interpretation of the Establishment Clause, including in cases such as Reynolds v. United States (1878), Everson v. Board of Education (1947) where Justice Hugo Black wrote: “In the words of Thomas Jefferson, the clause against establishment of religion by law was intended to erect a wall of separation between church and state.”, and McCollum v. Board of Education (1948).
LOCKE IN JEFFERSON’S IDEA OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM
Jefferson’s idea of religious freedom was based on the phrase “dictates of conscience”, a reference to Locke’s central argument for tolerating religious beliefs and resulting practice.49 Locke’s argument was that any state effort to dictate or coerce belief was pointless because belief is involuntary, and that, therefore, state efforts at coercion only promote hypocrisy and offense to God. Locke’s main point is that the only thing that can legitimately dictate belief is the individual’s conscience:
“For no man can, if he would, conform his faith to the dictates of another.”50 “No way whatever that I shall walk in against the dictates of my conscience, will ever bring me to the mansions of the blessed.” 51
Locke’s key argument, which Jefferson follows closely, is that attempts to regulate beliefs are pointless, not illegitimate. According to Locke, the state has only coercion as a means to its ends. However, one can be coerced to do only what one can do voluntarily. Since belief is involuntary but is dictated by an assessment of evidence, even a state motivated by a pure concern to propagate true faith does not have the means to accomplish that.52 Locke and Jefferson were concerned to protect more than religious opinion, as shown in their concern that the state not foster hypocrisy. Locke follows his central argument by claiming that “in offering thus unto Almighty god such worship as we esteem to be displeasing to him, we add unto the number of other sins, those also of hypocrisy, and contempt of his Divine Majesty.”53 Jefferson similarly argues in his Bill for Religious Freedom that such attempts at coercion “tend[s] only to corrupt the principles of… religion it is meant to encourage.” The appeal to avoiding coercing of hypocrisy shows that Locke and Jefferson assume that some religious actions fall outside the sphere of state relationship.
While both personally advocated a rationalized form of Christianity, a Christianity whose dogmas must stand the test of reason, neither appeals to that form of Christianity in arguments for tolerance, religious freedom and for good reason.
JEFFERSON AND PRESENT UNITED STATES
Jefferson wrote to John Adams in 1821:
“I shall not die without a hope that light and liberty are on steady advance. We have seen, indeed, once within the records of history, a complete eclipse of the human mind continuing for centuries… Even should the cloud of barbarism and despotism again obscure the science and liberties of Europe, this country remains to preserve and restore light and liberty to them. In short, the flames kindled on the 4th of July, 1776, have spread over too much of the globe to be extinguished by the feeble engines of despotism; on the contrary, they will consume these engines and all who work them.”
Jefferson died 5 years after expressing his hope in the above mentioned letter. While he is still the most quoted and one of the most respected philosophers of his time in America and the world, it today seems that his hope and ideas have faded away. Even though we see the philosophy of Thomas Jefferson last through the test of time, we can see that in today’s United States of America, the impact of Thomas Jefferson’s Philosophy on society is reducing. Thomas Jefferson, the champion of individual freedom and right to privacy and religious freedom, can find his philosophy becoming less and less important day by day due to various reasons. Firstly we are witnessing an increase in the number of surveillance by various agencies across the globe in the name of national security. This is both an impact on individual freedom and right to privacy. This can be attributed to the Federal Government attitude when it comes to increasing it’s capacity to gather intelligence in the name of national security at the cost of the privacy of those people who they are expected to save. Secondly, we see that there are various legislations that directly go against the sage of Monticello, namely the Patriot Act that came into force just a month after the horrific September 11th attacks. This act, which came into force with the tagline “protecting the homeland” has come under severe criticisms by various groups for its complete disregard for people’s personal rights which has been developed through many Supreme Court judgments. The Patriot Act gives sweeping powers to the executive by giving it the power to conduct searches on both US and non-US citizens on suspicion on terror activities. Also they can be detained without the right to an attorney and on top on this, these acts cannot come under the purview of judicial review. This is a direct contradiction to the philosophy of one of America’s most loved presidents as he firmly believed that the judiciary and the legislature should be more powerful than the executive. This also goes against Jefferson’s primary believed that an individual’s freedom and liberty should the main aim of any government.
Another area we see this in is the increasing amount of insensitivity the American society shows against the various religious minorities in the United States of America which is completely against what Thomas Jefferson said. This could be seen in the recent issue of constructing a mosque near the original twin towers in New York. Although on the face of it, there should be no problem in a liberal society like The United States of America, there were huge protests against this idea with thousands of people coming to the streets and filling up petition after petition. This was an important incident that was showcased across the country for many days and was resolved until a billionaire bought the disputed property. Another instance we see the American society, especially the security agencies discriminate against the religious minority is in the very recent case whereby the New York Police Department officially stated that every mosque in the city could be considered as a terror cell. This statement made by the United State’s largest police department came as a shock to many people and there was a public outcry against this statement. Although the department made a apology after a few days, this incident along with the other incidents shows how the United States, is repeatedly acting in a way that goes against some of the fundamental principles about religious freedom that was laid down by Thomas Jefferson.
Edited by Hariharan Kumar
1. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/thomasjefferson Last accessed 7.45 pm IST, March 04, 2014
3. http://www.poplarforest.org/jefferson Last accessed 4.30 pm IST, March 03, 2014
4. Rita Thievon, Thomas Jefferson: Architect of Freedom (2007), 50.
5. E. Merriam, Jr. “The Political Theory of Jefferson”, Political Science Quarterly 17, no. 1 (1902): 28.
6. http://www.forfreedomssake.com/blog/2009/02/john-locke-on-liberty-and-freedom/ Last accessed 10.15 am IST, March 05, 2014.
7. Laura J. Scalia, “The Many Faces of Locke in America’s Early Nineteenth-Century Democratic Philosophy,” Political Research Quarterly 49, no. 4, (1996): 828.
8. E. Bergh, ed., The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, (Ohio: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association, 1905), 10, 343.
9. William Lee Miller, The First Liberty: Religion and American Public (1986), 64.
10. Milton R. Konvitz, “Separation of Church and State: The First Freedom”, Law and Contemporary Problems 14, no. 1 (1949): 57.
11. K. Padover, ed., Democracy by Thomas Jefferson (1939), 72
13. Padover, The Complete Jefferson, (1943), 386
14. Ibid at 675
15. Ibid at 943
16. Alexander Brodie, , The Cambridge Companion to the Scottish Enlightenment (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 324
17. Ibid at 16
19. Henry Augustine, ed., The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (1907), 89.
20. Library of Congress Exhibition, Religion and the Federal Government Part II,
21. http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/745447/posts Last accessed 1.23 am IST, March 01, 2014.
22. Miller Robert , Native America, Discovered and Conquered: Thomas Jefferson, Lewis & Clark, and Manifest Destiny (University of Nebraska Press, 2008), 90.
23. https://tjefferson.wikispaces.com/Religious+Freedom/ 23 https://tjefferson.wikispaces.com/Religious+Freedom/ Last accessed 12.15 pm IST, March 02, 2014.
24. Merrill D. Peterson, ed. Thomas Jefferson: Writings, 1236.
25. Bailey, Jeremy D., Thomas Jefferson and Executive Power (2007), 23, 239.
26. Jefferson Looney, ed., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Retirement Series (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2011), 248.
27. Richey and D. Jones, eds., The Origins of Perplexity: Civil Religion and Moral Belief in the Thought of Thomas Jefferson (1974), 185.
28. H. Washington, ed., Writings of Jefferson (1853), 482.
29. Malone, The Sage of Monticello (1981), 499.
30. N. Schanchner, Thomas Jefferson: A Biography (1951), 160.
31. John A. Ragosta, Religious Freedom: Jefferson’s Legacy, America’s Creed (Virginia: University of Virginia Press, 2013), 36-37.
32. K. Ramazani and Robert Fatton, Religion, State and Society (2008), 22.
33. Supra n. 28 at 236-37
34. Boyd, ed., Papers of Jefferson (1950), 555–58.
35. http://classroom.monticello.org/kids/resources/profile/262/Virginia-Statute-for-Religious-Freedom/ Last accessed 2.30 am IST, March 03, 2014.
36. http://www.federalistblog.us/2010/11/_defending_jeffersons_wall_of_separation_metaphor/ Last accessed 3.45 am IST, March 06, 2014.
37. Arlin M. Adams and Charles J. Emmerich, “A Heritage of Religious Liberty”, University of Pennsylvania Law Review 137, no. 5 (1989), 1585.
38. Sargent, Lyman Tower, ed. Political Thought in the United States: A Documentary History (New York: New York University Press, 1997), 69-70.
39. Ibid at 8.
40. http://classroom.monticello. org/kids/resources/profile/262/Virginia-Statute-for-Religious-Freedom/ Last accessed 7.45 pm IST, March 06, 2014.
41. http://www.vahistorical.org/collections-and-resources/virginia-history-explorer/thomas-jefferson Last accessed 2.05 pm IST, March 06, 2014.
42. http://classroom.monticello. org/kids/resources/profile/262/Virginia-Statute-for-Religious-Freedom/ Last accessed 4.45 pm IST, March 04, 2014.
43. The Correspondence of Richard Price, Letter to Sylyanus Urban, 45.
44. http://www.pbs.org/jefferson/enlight/religi.htm Last accessed 8.45 pm IST, March 03, 2014.
45. https://tjefferson.wikispaces.com/Religious+Freedom Last accessed 9.00 pm IST, March 03, 2014.
46. http://www.pbs.org/jefferson/enlight/religi.htm Last accessed 10.30 am IST, March 05, 2014.
47. Supra n. 46 at 8.
48. Edwin S. Gaustad, Sword of the Alter of God: A religious Biography of Thomas Jefferson, 101
49. Rick Fairbanks, “The Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God: The Role of Theological Claims in the Argument of the Declaration of Independence”, Journal of Law and Religion 2,11, (1995): 578-579.
50. Horton and S. Meredus, eds, A Letter Concerning Toleration (Routledge, 1991), 18.
51. Ibid at 32.