Fascism: Origin, Features And Connotations

By Arham Siddiqui, National Law University Odisha                                                                      

Editor’s Note: In this project, efforts have been made to explain the concept of fascism, its origin and development in various countries of the world. A detailed study of its features and a critical analysis of the literature available on the same has been done.  Fascism as a social, economic and political synthesis has been also addressed. However, in conclusion the author has made an attempt to highlight the deficits and demerits of the concept of fascism and how it eventually failed in the face of democratization.

INTRODUCTION

For a layman, Fascism is nothing but ‘One Party Rule.’

The main authority meaning of Fascism originates from Benito Mussolini, the organizer of fascism, in which he traces three standards of a rightist theory:[i]

1.”Everything in the state”. The Government is preeminent and the nation is all-encompassing , and all inside of it must comply with the decision body, regularly a tyrant.

2.”Nothing outside the state”. The nation must develop and the inferred objective of any rightist country is to manage the world, and have each human submit to the administration. [ii]

3.”Nothing against the state”. Any sort of scrutinizing the administration is not to be endured. In the event that you don’t see things our way, you are incorrect. In the event that you don’t concur with the administration, you can’t be permitted to live and pollute the psyches of whatever remains of the great nationals.

The utilization of militarism was suggested just as an intend to finish one of the three above standards, for the most part to keep the individuals and rest of the world in line. Rightist nations are known for their amicability and absence of interior strife. There are no clashing gatherings or decisions in rightist nations.[iii]

As Mussolini himself quotes, “Fascism, the more it considers and watches the future and the advancement of humankind entirely separated from political contemplations existing apart from everything else, accepts neither in the likelihood nor the utility of perpetual peace. It in this way disavows the regulation of Pacifism – conceived of a renunciation of the battle and a demonstration of faintheartedness notwithstanding give up.”[iv]

“The State not just is power which administers and molds individual wills with laws and estimations of spiritual life, however it is likewise control which makes its will win abroad…. For the Fascist, everything is inside of the State and… neither people or gatherings are outside the State…. For Fascism, the State is an absolute, before which people or gatherings are just relative.”…The Fascist acknowledges life and adores it, remaining unaware of and detesting suicide: he rather thinks about existence as obligation and battle and triumph, yet most importantly for others – the individuals who are within reach and the individuals who are far inaccessible, counterparts, and the individuals who will come after…” [v]

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

1.Fascism: Origins and Ideology by Red Phoenix, published on February 11, 2011.

 The author in this article talks about the origin of fascism in the 19th Century. He talks about the social and political change that accompanied with the end of World War I.which combined the different states of mind (elitism, racism, irrationalism, hostility to innovation) that described the radical right of the early years of the century into a strong political development, called fascism.

The author also talks about the most popular fascist regime under Benito Mussolini in Italy and its effects on the polity and governance of the nation. He also highlights the authoritarian ideology of Mussolini where he tells people that, “Mussolini is always right.”

 2.The 14 Characteristics of Fascism by Lawrence Britt, published by Free Inquiry Magazine in Spring 2003.

 Political researcher Dr. Lawrence Britt composed an article about the fourteen characteristics of fascism. Concentrating on the rightist administrations of Hitler (Germany), Mussolini (Italy), Franco (Spain), Suharto (Indonesia), and Pinochet (Chile), Dr. Britt discovered they all had 14 components in a similar manner. He called these the recognizing attributes of dictatorship. The extract is as per the magazine’s ideology.

3.The Economic, Political and Social Origins of Fascism by A. Lehmann, Issue 2, Masses. November 1993

The author of this article describes the economic roots for the growth of fascism.

 He states that major financial shakiness debilitated European political life, also the uncontrollable inflation wiped out reserve funds and made mass unemployment.

Quoting the social and political factors, he hints that Treaty of Versailles led to sheer dis-satisfaction with the terms of WW1 peace settlements, which added to the ascent of fascism. Italy didn’t get the domain it was guaranteed. Germany was subjected to brutal reparation terms and lost domain. New states built up with the separation of realms brought about contact over fringes.It was a response to the alarming, dehumanizing attributes of industrialization.

Fascism looked to meld the advantages of cutting edge society with a conventional good request focused upon wholesome family ideals. Rightist symbolism is overflowing with portrayals of glad local families in customary national attire.

 4.The Anatomy of Fascism, Chapter 3-‘Taking Root’, byRobert O Paxton, published by Alfred A Knoff, New York, 2004.

The third chapter of this books talks about the emergence of Fascist Regimes in Italy  and Germany.

 He explains howBenito Mussolini exploited the distress of war, assembling a conglomeration of war veterans and otherunhappy Italians to constitute a newer political arena known as Fascism.

Strike the iron when it is hot, was done by Hitler in Germany.When Germany was in chaos,Adolf Hitler guaranteed to give occupations and revamp German pride.In 1920, he headed the National Communist German Workers, or Nazi, Party. His Party developed. Hitler’s Germany, called the Third Reich, was a totalitarian state. He fabricated an one-gathering government, called Fascism, finished social liberties, hushed his foes with power, put organizations under government control, and utilized numerous individuals in vast works programs.

 5.Fascism by Roger Griffin, published by Oxford University Press, 1995

Thebook offers an analytical background of various Fascist Regimes all around the world, ranging from Argentina to Japan. The book on a macro level focuses the pros and cons which the theory and practicality of a fascist government bestows among the general public

The author believes that the advantages of a fascist regime can be only summed up to enhanced security, patriotism, controlled media, economic growth, strong leadership and efficient administration. It may also ensure a society of better political order due to single voice representation; say Hitler’s government in Germany.

On the other hand, the disadvantages of a fascist rule are endless. Concealment of Free Speech Infringement of Human Rights, Over militarization, frequently emptying trusts out of different things ,Scapegoating, Over punishment, Unjustified detainment and execution, Absence of protection ,Abuse of religions, frequently for a noteworthy religion, Annihilation/severance of genuine most profound sense of being supportive of creed and legitimate progressive force structures, Sexism/uneven male predominance are a ‘few’ to note, the author enunciates.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The present study is basically doctrinal study; exploration attempted is expressive in nature with an expository way to deal with the subject. Both essential and auxiliary information has been utilized and look at as a part of the comprehensive way with the end goal of the exposition. The method of reference took after by the examination researchers is nineteenth blue book reference

Scope

 This paper shall make an endeavour to lighten up the form of government known as Fascism. Furthermore, it will make an effort to comprehend different perspectives of Fascism, viz. the social, economic and the political front. This venture report additionally tries its endeavours to accommodate, an expansive standpoint of source of Fascist rules system and its development around the globe. Also, this research throws light on the pros and cons of the fascist rules.

 Limitation

 “Over the span the compass of attesting and looking at resources that I have relied on, it has been genuinely felt that the areas of this subject is really wide. Likewise, starting now and into the foreseeable future, this paper may be focusing particularly edge with reference to the thought of Fascism included in the rules of Italy and Germany, and subsequently, keeping and narrowing the degree of the argumentation of the already expressed issues, in mission for a closer examination of them.”

 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. How did the concept of Fascism originate? What are the common basic features in a Fascist Regime?
  2. What are the economic, social and political connotations of Fascism?
  3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a Fascist Government?

ORIGINS OF FASCISM

 Aftermath Of World War 1:Fascism was supported in the atmosphere of disorder, vulnerability, frustration, and disobedience that occupied the world in 1919.[vi] Demobilized fighters returned home to face unemployment, bread lines, strikes and uproars. The fruitful communist revolution in Russia and the development of an international socialist development froze the established order, particularly business intrigues who felt that their social, financial, and political positions were straightforwardly undermined. Numerous suspected that a power ready and ready to fall back on boundless counter-progressive savagery was important to cure the circumstance.[vii]

 Functions and Origin:More powerful at purposeful publicity than at really ruling, the fascist government all the time worked as to a greater extent a Mafia-like support structure than as a proficiently running state. [viii]With respect to the name “fascist ” itself, there is some debate as to its origin. From one viewpoint there is the Italian word fascio, meaning a unit or separation; on the other there is the fasces, which is an image of state power in ancient Rome, that comprised of a hatchet in a heap of poles. . Regularly conflicting, fascist thought asserted to reject progressivism and socialism and to grasp power,heirarchy and interminable activity and assembly.

 The fascist motto was of “Credire! Obbedire! Combattire!”(“Believe! Comply! Battle!), which exemplified the feeling of militarization.[ix]

 In 1935, the Seventh World Congress of the Communist International broadly characterized fascism as “the transparently terrorist autocracy of the most reactionary, most haughty and most settler components of fund capital.” This definition, termed the Dimitrov Formulation (after Georgi Dimitrov, leader of the Comintern) gives a strong Marxist establishment to understanding the way of totalitarianism, known as Fascism. Some further fleshing out, however, is required so as to completely recognize one party rule from different types of average restraint; for autocracy is a certain kind of middle class fascism with its own novel components.

 Facets of Fascism:An issue here emerges in light of the fact that, not at all like different philosophies, fascism does not have a reasonable assemblage of thought behind it. This is, maybe an outcome of one party rule’s starting points in the different dispositions that constituted the diverse radical right of the nineteenth century.  Numerous people from diverse foundations and concerns will come to fascism for distinctive reasons. Subsequently, there will be what has been termed “hyphenated fascism”: radical-despotism, administrative one party rule, monarch-one party rule and so forth. It is regularly less demanding to say what autocracy is against than to recognize what one party rule is for. Also, the picture fascism ventures as a development is regularly at difference with the truth that autocracy forces once it comes to control. There will be two firmly related, yet unmistakable variations of totalitarianism: Italian one party rule and German one party rule (National Socialism or Nazism)[x]

 Popularity Of Fascism as a Mass Movement: Albeit the vast majority of its first disciples were grounded officers and road “toughs,” one party rule expanded its allure – else it would have remained a peripheral development. Industrialists were pulled in to totalitarianism for its extraordinary hostile to socialism. Extensive sections of the insignificant common, office labourers and little entrepreneurs, saw dictatorship as both shielding them from enormous business (take note of the inconsistency with the actuality of huge business support for one party rule) and sparing them from falling into the average workers. Numerous in provincial zones saw totalitarianism as giving chances to progression. Accordingly, Fascism turned into a mass development.

FEATURES OF FASCISM

 Fascist regimes spread across from Italy to Germany, from Japan to the country of Argentina. The following fourteen features form the backbone of any fascist government that have been established throughout the world[xi]:

 1)Intense and Continuing Nationalism

Rightist administrations tend to make steady utilization of energetic maxims, trademarks, images, tunes, and other stuff. Banners are seen all over, as are banner images on attire and openly shows.

 2)Contempt for the Recognition of Human Rights

As a result of apprehension of foes and the requirement for security, the individuals in rightist administrations are induced that human rights can be overlooked in specific cases in view of “need.” The individuals tend to look the other way or even sanction of torment, synopsis executions, deaths, long detainments of detainees, and so on[xii].

 3)Distinguishing proof of Enemies/Scapegoats as a Unifying Cause

The individuals are revitalized into a binding together enthusiastic free for all over the need to dispense with an apparent basic risk or adversary: racial , ethnic or religious minorities; liberals; communists; communists, terrorists, and so on.

 4)Matchless quality of the Military

Notwithstanding when there are far reaching local issues, the military is given a lopsided measure of government subsidizing, and the local motivation is dismissed. Troopers and military administration are glamorized.[xiii]

5)Uncontrolled Sexism

The legislatures of rightist countries have a tendency to be solely male-overwhelmed. Under rightist administrations, customary sexual orientation parts are made more inflexible. Resistance to premature birth is high, as is homophobia and hostile to gay enactment and national strategy.

 6)Controlled Mass Media

Once in a while to media is straightforwardly controlled by the administration, however in different cases, the media is in a roundabout way controlled by government regulation, or thoughtful media representatives and administrators. Oversight, particularly in war time, is extremely regular.

 7)Fixation on National Security

Apprehension is utilized as a motivational instrument by the administration over the masses.

8)Religionand Government are Intertwined

Governments in rightist countries tend to utilize the most widely recognized religion in the country as a device to control popular feeling. Religious talk and phrasing is normal from government pioneers, notwithstanding when the real precepts of the religion are oppositely contradicted to the administration’s strategies or activities. [xiv]

 9)Corporate Power is Protected

The modern and business gentry of a rightist country regularly are the ones who put the administration pioneers into force, making a commonly helpful business/government relationship and force first class.

10)Work Power is Suppressed

Since the sorting out force of work is the main genuine risk to a rightist government, worker’s organizations are either wiped out completely, or are extremely smothered .

 11)Hatred for Intellectuals and the Arts

Rightist countries have a tendency to advance and endure open threatening vibe to advanced education, and the scholarly world. It is not unprecedented for teachers and different scholastics to be edited or even captured. Free expression in human expressions is transparently assaulted, and governments regularly decline to subsidize expressions of the human experience.[xv]

 12)Fixation on Crime and Punishment

Under rightist administrations, the police are given verging on boundless energy to implement laws. The individuals are frequently eager to neglect police misuse and even forego common freedoms for the sake of patriotism. There is frequently a national police power with for all intents and purposes boundless force in rightist countries.

 13)Widespread Cronyism and Corruption

Rightist administrations quite often are represented by gatherings of companions and partners who name one another to government positions and utilization legislative force and power to shield their companions from responsibility. It is not unprecedented in rightist administrations for national assets and even fortunes to be appropriated or even by and large stolen by government pioneers.

 14)Fake Elections

In some cases races in rightist countries are a complete sham. Different times decisions are controlled by smear crusades against or even death of restriction applicants, utilization of enactment to control voting numbers or political locale limits, and control of the media. Rightist countries additionally normally utilize their judiciaries to control or control races.[xvi]

ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CONNOTATIONS OF FASCISM

Economic Connotation:

With a specific end goal to grasp on the key reasons for fascism, it is important to consider the auxiliary changes in private enterprise which have occurred in late decades.[xvii]

Up until the first years of the century free enterprise was all the while creating in a dynamic way in which rivalry between private industrialists or shareholding organizations went about as an engine power of financial advancement. The pretty much normal development of efficiency was reasonably effectively consumed by the new markets opened up amid the time of colonization by the colonialist powers. [xviii]The type of political association comparing to this atomized structure of free enterprise was middle class popular government which permitted the diverse entrepreneur strata to control their opposing hobbies in the most fitting way.

The prosperous state of private enterprise permitted it to concede the laborers certain political and material concessions, and made inside of the regular workers the preconditions for reformism and the dream that parliament could serve as an instrument of advancement for the common laborers.

The likelihood of a steadily developing gathering of capital, which had been showed amid this introductory stage, reached an end as rivalry between national capitals turned out to be more exceptional because of the lack of new domains to be vanquished for entrepreneur extension. These competitions brought on by the limitation of business sectors prompted the First World War. [xix]

The same conditions likewise started the change of the structure of private enterprise by means of the dynamic convergence of capital under the mastery of fund capital.

The war and its outcomes quickened the procedure. Leading so as to swell specifically, to the dispossession of the working classes, permitted the advancement of imposing business model capital on a colossal scale: the association of capital in immense trusts and cartels, on a level plane and vertically, which started to go past even the national system. The diverse strata of private enterprise (monetary, modern, and so forth) lost their specific character and were ingested into an inexorably uniform alliance of hobbies. .

In the connection of this structure, free enterprise no more had any requirement for parliamentarism, which just made due at first as a veneer for the tyranny of restraining infrastructure capital. Be that as it may, this parliamentarism was still helpful to the bourgeoisie, since it gave the fascism of a political base from which it could keep alive reformist illusions in the ordinary masses.

The immediate and open tyranny of imposing business model capital came to be a need for the bourgeoisie itself. The rightist framework showed itself to be the type of government most suited to the needs of restraining infrastructure capital. [xx]

Its financial association is best ready to offer an answer for the inward disagreements of the bourgeoisie, since its political substance permits the bourgeoisie to locate another premise of bolster, supplanting a reformism which has turned out to be less and less ready to manage the illusions of the masses.[xxi]

Social Connotation:

 The powerlessness of the bourgeoisie to keep up its political base in reformism gets from the Intensification of class strife between the bourgeoisie and the low class. Since the war reformism in Germany has been only a clean diversion. Ordinary the German average workers lost somewhat more of what stayed of the “victories” of reformism. [xxii]

The glory of reformism according to the masses survived simply because of its intense bureaucratic association. In any case, the rough assaults against the specialists’ expectations for everyday comforts, which have dove them into the most horrendous neediness, have quickly undermined the impact of reformism in the working masses and uncovered the class opposition between the low class and the bourgeoisie.

 Parallel to this procedure inside of the common laborers there was a procedure of radicalization among the diverse strata of the petit-bourgeoisie. The workers were dove into obligation, lessened to destitution, and in a few spots, depended on terrorist activities.

The retailers felt the twin blows of the impoverishment of the masses and of the opposition from the enormous stores and co-agents. Intelligent people disorientated by instability about what tomorrow may bring, understudies without a future, declassed ex-officers, all started to swing to adventurist thoughts.[xxiii]

 Professional specialists – struck around unemployment, excess functionaries – likewise showed themselves to be prepared to be activated by radical demagogy.

 An unclear and Utopian hostile to free enterprise grew up among these heterogeneous strata seized by the grand bourgeoisie. Their hostile to private enterprise was reactionary in that it went for an arrival to a former phase of free enterprise. In this way regardless of their radicalism they turned into a preservationist component and effectively turned into the instrument of imposing business model private enterprise. [xxiv]

In all actuality, for this radicalized, oblivious petit-common mass, unequipped for assuming an autonomous part in the economy and confronted with the developing opposition between the working class and the bourgeoisie, it was an issue of settling on a decision between one or the other. [xxv]It needed to pick between imposing business model capital, which was in charge of its edgy circumstance, and the progressive subject of history, the low class. Scorn of the lowly transformation which would put a conclusion to classes, and the petite-bourgeoisie’s connection to its (benefits which were currently just a memory), tossed the radicalized white collar classes into the arms of imposing business model capital, therefore supplying the last with an adequately extensive social base for it to get rid of reformism, now very nearly crumple.

Political Connotation:

The union of the two opposing parts of fascism, reliance on restraining infrastructure capital and preparation of the petit-common masses, communicated on the political plane in the advancement of the National Socialist Party. This gathering owed its advancement to a furious demagogy and to the endowments of overwhelming industry.

On the ideological level, this gathering offered vent to the lose faith in regards to the petit-middle class masses by means of a radical and progressive manner, notwithstanding venturing to advocate certain types of seizure (eg banks. Jews, huge stores); its contact with restraining infrastructure capital was communicated in its promulgation for class joint effort, for various levelled corporative association, against the class battle and Marxism. [xxvi]

The irregularity of the ideological substance of Nazi demagogy is indicated obviously in its bigot purposeful publicity. The discontent of the masses was avoided against the Treaty of Versailles, private enterprise’s substitute, and against the Jews who were seen as the delegates of global capital AND promoters of the class battle… This tissue of mixed up stupidities could just flourish in the brains of the petite—bourgeoisie, whose optional part in the economy makes it unequipped for comprehension anything about the financial certainties and chronicled occasions into which it has been tossed. [xxvii]

The radicalized workers and petite-bourgeoisie constantly framed the considerable mass of the National Socialist Party. It was just when its subordination to imposing business model capital turned out to be all the more clear that the bourgeoisie itself came to strengthen the frameworks of the Nazi Party and supplied it with officers and pioneers. In any case, until Hitler came to control, the Nazi gathering thought that it was difficult to make any genuine infringements into the regular workers, as saw in the decisions to the works boards.

Be that as it may, if the common labourers did not permit itself to be essentially polluted by rightist demagogy it was in any case unequipped for keeping the improvement of the National Socialist Party. It didn’t figure out how to fix the development of a, coalition of reactionary classes. The enormous specialists’ gatherings attempted without accomplishment to make utilization of either evident dissimilarity between imposing business model capital and the National Socialists. Most importantly, the working class did not comprehend that the genuine inconsistency was not in the middle of majority rules system and one party rule, but rather in the middle of totalitarianism and the common upheaval. It was in this way the absence of the progressive limit with respect to the low class which allowed the political improvement of one party rule and the ascent of Hitler.[xxviii]

FASCISM IN GERMANY AND ITALY

World War II was, most likely, a merciless war that endured from 1939 to 1945 and reached out crosswise over Europe, Eastern Asia, and the South Pacific Ocean. The reasons for WWII are established in the outcome of WWI and the impacts of the Treaty of Versailles, which finished the First World War. One of the numerous procurements of the Treaty of Versailles was for Germany to acknowledge obligation regarding bringing on the Great War. This is presently known as the War Guilt Clause, or Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles.

The unforgiving limitations on Germany energized a condition of dissatisfaction, which was lead by Adolf Hitler when he rose to power as Führer and chancellor by the venturing down of the president of Germany, Paul von Hindenburg. In spite of the fact that Hitler is regularly seen as the substance of totalitarianism, he was really the pioneer of the German Socialist Party, also called the Nazi Party.

It is Italy’s Benito Mussolini who established the one party rule belief system. Mussolini looked to re-make the Great Roman Empire by utilization of a totalitarian administer and nourishing of the trepidation of socialism. In 1939, Hitler and Mussolini marked the Pact of Steel shaping a union which is known as the Axis forces amid WWII. After the Axis forces lost the Second World War, numerous rightist gatherings dismantled and in a few spots it was banned; despite the fact that there have been gatherings of neo-fascists.

 After the First World War, Italy endured a few emergencies. There were nourishment deficiencies, mass-unemployment and vagrancy. As the typical cost for basic items rose, savage strikes were held. The peace settlement likewise left Italians to a great degree disappointed.[xxix] In spite of the fact that they had battled on the triumphant side, and regardless of the loss of a large portion of a million Italian lives, they felt the crown jewels of war had not been imparted decently to them. They didn’t get the domains they had sought after when the settlements of the vanquished countries were partitioned amongst the victors. [xxx]

The liberals neglected to manage these issues adequately and the Italian individuals needed an in number pioneer who could prepare them and enhance their living conditions. They needed someone who might speak to their feeling of patriotism and Benito Mussolini did only this.

 Mussolini abused the post-war unsteadiness to take control over Italy. In 1919 he established the Fascist Party, for which he got support from distinctive segments of society. War veterans upheld him to come back to the eminence of armed force life. Thus, his rule was established.[xxxi]

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FASCISM

ADVANTAGES:

One motivation behind why Benito Mussolini came to power in Italy was his guarantee that the trains would keep running on time. Before he entered office, the trains were famously late, and if his tenet had brought more noteworthy productivity, that would have changed (despite the fact that there is no proof that it did). Totalitarian guideline can possibly make a general public with a lot of request in light of the fact that there is stand out voice deciding. In Hitler’s Germany, society ran easily for the individuals who fit Hitler’s vision of a perfect native.

Fascism establishes a very strong rule. There are no oppositions and criticism to the steps taken, hence there is utter uniformity in the outcomes of such steps. A prompt and efficient administrative structure is guaranteed by fascist rule. The simple reason being its alienabilty to discussions and debates. Absolute power enables the leader to take decisions according to his will, which he considers good for the nation as a whole. Enhanced security, patriotism, controlled media, economic growth, strong leadership are few pros of this form of leadership.

DISADVANTAGES:

The significant hindrance of one party rule is that having one and only individual in force implies that there are no representing morals or standards set up if that individual loses strength. The expression “Force defiles, and supreme force debases completely” takes one of its most realistic recorded cases from the standard of Hitler, as he utilized his totalitarian energy to butcher a large number of innocents and to wreak ruin all over Europe.

There are innumerable cons of Fascism, some of which are:

  • Concealment of Free Speech ,Infringement of Human Rights
  • Over militarization, frequently emptying stores out of different things
  • Scapegoating,Over punishment ,Unjustified detainment and execution.
  • Absence of protection,Abuse of religions, regularly for a noteworthy religion.
  • Annihilation/severance of genuine most profound sense of being supportive of doctrine and definitive various levelled force structures ,Sexism/uneven male predominance
  • Controlled broad communications limiting data ,Power and privileges of work stifled ,Unfit cronyism and heaps of debasement ,Exhausting Plastic Existence.
  • Smothering and even demolition of craftsmanship ,Corporate Monoculture as you sit tight for them to turn out with various stuff, whatever is considered suitable for utilization.
  • Reliance on framework,Absence of singularity and self-expression ,Life (and passing) choices being made for you ,Extreme pandering and manipulating.
  • Absence of trustworthiness and honour
  • Redundancy of mottos as opposed to individuals thinking for themselves ,War, assaulting different nations
  • Unjustified penances,Servitude.

CONCLUSION

 As we have seen through this project, Fascism is a belief system that has wreaked incredible damage on humankind. Not just was it the reason for the demise and torment of a great many individuals as a result of their race, and the awfulness of the Second World War in the most recent century , however it has likewise tried to pulverize every human esteem wherever it has risen, by adding to an “atmosphere of trepidation.”

Through the detailed and critical analysis of various literature available on the topic, it is very clear that Fascism served more cons than pros in the platter of the general public.

Keeping in mind the end goal to understand Fascism, we comprehend what one party rule is. As this project has endeavored to make clear, Fascism is a society. At its roots are agnosticism, the Darwinist idea of “contention,” and Darwinian bigotry.

We took up the case of Italy and Germany, studied the reason for mass psychology in favour of Fascism, then ultimately its dreadful end by the coming up of other forms of government.

We understood the social, economic and political reasons that compelled people to vouch for an absolute rule such as Fascism.

Through the comparative and critical analysis, the questions for research have been answered and left for your perusal. The project on Understand Fascism reaches its conclusive abode here.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

BOOKS

  • Today’s Isms: Communism, Fascism,Capitalism,Socialism. Prentice-Hall.1954.
  • George PBlum. Rise of Fascism in Europe. Greenwood Press.1998
  • Florinsky. Fascism and National Socialism: A study of the economic and social policies of the totalitarian state. Macmillan, 1936.
  • LowellField,.The Syndic and Corporative institutions of Italian Fascism. Columbia University Press.1938
  • Jr, HenryA. Turner.. Reappraisals of Fascism. New Viewpoints, 1935.
  • ThomasChilders,.The Nazi Voter: The Social Foundations of fascism in Germany.University of North Carolina Press, 1983

 

ARTICLES

  • The Economic, Political and Social Connotations of Fascism. Vol.2, Masses. 1992. Pg 20
  • Fascism (Politics). Encyclopaedia Britannica, http://www.britannica.com/topic/fascism (Last accessed on 2015, September 6)
  • RedPhoenix,. Fascism: Origins and Ideology. 2011, February 11(http://theredphoenixapl.org/2011/02/01/fascism-origins-and-ideology(Last accessed on 2015, September 6).
  • GeorgeOrwell. What is Fascism?1944
  • Lyons.What is Fascism? Some General Ideological Features. Political Research Associates.
  • Fascism. The Concise Encyclopaedia of Economics
  • The Aftermath of WWI: The Rise of Fascism in Germany and Italy. Guided History.)
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Totalitarianism. Study Lecture Notes
  • Mackel. A Political Ideology Of the past. Student Pulse.( Last Accessed on 2015, September 8)
  • David RamsaySteele. The Mystery Of Fascism. ( Last accessed on 2015, September 9)

Edited by Kanchi Kaushik

[i]Mussolini, Benito. Fascism: Doctrine and Institutions. Firenze: Vallecchi, 1935.

[ii]Ibid 1

[iii] Supra 1

[iv] Mussolini, Benito. Italian Encyclopedia on Fascism,1932.

[v]Ibid 4.

[vi]Period after World War1

[vii]Phoenix, Red. Fascism: Origins and Ideology. 2011, February 11.

[viii]Ibid 6

[ix]Supra 6

[x] Supra 6

[xi]Britt, Lawrence. The 14 Characteristics of Fascism. Free Inquiry Magazine.2003, August

[xii]Ibid 10

[xiii]Supra 10

[xiv]Supra 10

[xv]Supra 10

[xvi]Supra 10

[xvii]Lehmann, A.The Economic, Political and Social Origins of Fascism.Masses, 1992.

[xviii]Ibid 16

[xix]Supra 16

[xx]  Supra 16

[xxi]  Supra 16

[xxii]  Supra 16

[xxiii] Supra 16

[xxiv] Supra 16

[xxv] Supra 16

[xxvi]  Supra 16

[xxvii]  Supra 16

[xxviii] Supra 16

[xxix]Anonymous.The differences between the Fascist economies of Italy and Germany.South African History Online.

[xxx] Ibid 28

[xxxi] Supra 28

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *