NAMAN SHUKLA & JALAJ PANDEY
Education is a key factor for women empowerment prosperity, development and welfare. The status of women in a complex society like India is not uniform. The dynamics of the future call for knowledge leadership. India today can boost of a large educated manpower, which is crucial for the socio-economic growth of any nation. Education also brings a reduction in inequalities and functions as a means of improving their status within the family.1
Key words: – women, empowerment, education, inequality
Women constitute almost half the human race. Education has been recognised as an essential agent of social change and development in any society and any country. Education considered as a potent instrument through which processes modernisation and social change come into existence2. Education exposes people to new thoughts and ideas and provides necessary skills hence, to think harmonies development without educating women is impossibility. Moreover it is rightly said that to educate the women is to educate the whole family. In the modern world, there are no domains of work that women haven’t delved into. Words such as chairman and cameraman have been rephrased as chairperson and cameraperson, to accommodate women. Many a male dominated work place has crumbled under the power of the woman – her spirit and energy. 3
India is poised to emerge as one of the most developed nations by 2020, more literate, knowledgeable and economically at the forefront. No doubt, women will play a vital role in contributing to the country’s development. Women power is crucial to the economic growth of any country. In India this is yet to meet the requirements despite reforms. Little has been achieved in the area of women empowerment, but for this to happen, this sector must experience a chain of reforms. Though India could well become one of the largest economies in the world, it is being hindered due to a lack of women’s participation4
“You educate a man; you educate a man. You educate a woman; you educate a generation5.”
“To me education is a leading out of what is already there in the pupil’s soul6.”
OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH
To find out how education has helped women empowerment in our country .
HYPOTHESIS OF THE RESEARH
Women literacy rate in our country was bad in pre independence era.
Overall education standard of country grew up after independence
Government policies played a very important role in enhancing women literary rates. Hence empowerment of women
LIMITATION OF THE RESEARCH
Following are the main limitation of research work :-
Due to the vastness of the topic it is not possible to over all the aspect within a limited time period therefor this research is strictly conducted on education sector only.
This research will cover only school area of India.
HISTORY OF WOMEN EDUCATION IN INDIA
Although in the Vedic period women had access to education in India, they had gradually lost this right. However, in the British period there was revival of interest in women’s education in India. During this period, various socio religious movements led by eminent persons like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Iswar Chandra Vidya sagar emphasized on women’s education in India.
Mahatma JyotibaPhule7, Periyar8and Baba SahebAmbedkar9were leaders of the lower castes in India who took various initiatives to make education available to the women of India. However women’s education got a fillip after the country got independence in 1947 and the government has taken various measures to provide education to all Indian women.
As a result women’s literacy rate has grown over the three decades and the growth of female literacy has in fact been higher than that of male literacy rate. While in 1971 only 22% of Indian women were literate, by the end of 2001 54.16% female were literate. The growth of female literacy rate is 14.87% as compared to 11.72 %10of that of male literacy rate.
IMPORTANCE OF WOMEN EDUCATION IN INDIA
Women education in India plays a very important role in the overall development of the country. It not only helps in the development of half of the human resources, but in improving the quality of life at home and outside. Educated women not only tend to promote education of their girl children, but also can provide better guidance to all their children. Moreover educated women can also help in the reduction of infant mortality rate and growth of the population.
Gender discrimination still persists in India and lot more needs to be done in the field of women’s education in India. The gap in the male-female literacy rate is just a simple indicator. While the male literary rate is more than 75% according to the 2001 Census, the female literacy rate is just 54.16%. 11
WOMEN EMPOWERMENT THROUGH EDUCATION
Women Empowerment is a global issue and discussion on women political right are at the fore front of many formal and informal campaigns worldwide. The concept of women empowerment was introduced at the international women conference at NAROIBI in 1985. Education is milestone of women empowerment because it enables them to responds to the challenges, to confront their traditional role and change their life. So that we can’t neglect the importance of education in reference to women empowerment India is poised to becoming superpower, a developed country by 2020.
The year 2020 is fast approaching; it is just 13 year away. This can became reality only when the women of this nation became empowerment. India presently account for the largest number no of illiterates in the world. Literacy rate in India have risen sharply from 18.3% in 1951 to 64.8% in 2001 in which enrolment of women in education have also risen sharply 7% to 54.16%. Despite the importance of women education unfortunately only 39% of women are literate among 64% of the man. Within the framework of a democratic polity, our laws, development policies, plan and programmes have aimed at women’s advancement in difference spheres.
From the fifth five year plan (1974 – 78) onwards has been a marked shift in the approach to women’s issues from welfare to development. In recent years, the empowerment of women has been recognized as the central issue in determining the status of women. The National Commission of Women was set up by an Act of Parliament in 1990 to safeguard the right and legal entitlements of women.
The 73rd and 74th Amendments (1993) to the constitution of India have provided for reservation of seats in the local bodies of panchayats and Municipalities for women, laying a strong foundation for their participation in decision making at the local level.
Data was collected from the serving teachers both male and female. A questionnaire of 5 enquiries were presented by investigator and presented to the age group of 25-40 years of different schools.
Data was analysed by percentage of respondents
Government should give 100% focus on improving literacy rate of girls.
More and more educational institutions should be open in rural area as well.
Educational loans to be given to girls till they qualify 12th standard.
More and more job opportunities should be given to girls both in rural as well as urban areas.
Several campaign’s should be started to bring attitudinal change in society towards girls
According to the Country Report of the Government of India, “Empowerment means moving from a weak position to execute a power.” Education of women in the education of women is the most powerful tool of change of position in society. Education also brings a reduction in inequalities and functions as a means of improving their status within the family. To encourage the education of women at all levels and for dilution of gender bias in providing knowledge and education, established schools, colleges and universities even exclusively for women in the state. To bring more girls, especially from marginalized families of BPL, in mainstream education, the government is providing a package of concessions in the form of providing free books, uniform, boarding and lodging, clothing for the hostilities midday meals, scholarships, free circles and so on.17